The word population means unexpected over growth of people. The growth of population is very rapid. And increasing of people in the per kilometer of area.
The increasing of people is a big problem some country even India also. The problem of over population has almost become world phenomenon today.
Causes of over population.
There are so many causes of over population as follows –
#1. Widening gap between birth and death rate.
In the year 1951-1961 the average annual birth rate was 42/1000 population in India. But it is comes down 28.7 persons per thousand in the year of 1993. The average death rate was 27/1000 population in the year 1951-1961 and it is decrease 9.3 in the year 1993. The population birth rate more than death rate. So the widening gap has increase our population rapidly.
#2. Low age at marriage.
It is one of the effective cause of the growth population. In India were perform 72% of marriages in low age according to the year 1931 of census. So, the population is continuously increasing. In the year 1901 to 1991 the female low age at marriage rate 13.1 to 18.4 and male low marriage rate 20.0 to 22.9.
Illiteracy is a major problem of increase population. Education is important because family planning has a link with education. And uneducated people are performed at low age marriage. The education can make a personal liberal, broad minded, open to new ideas and rational. In India the male and female literacy percentage is 63.86 and 39.42 in the year 1992.
#4. Environmental factor.
The physical environment exerts an effect through the postulated of climate on or reproductive span of woman.
According to the findings of “Age of consent committee” above 80% of the Indian girls get their first menstruation between the age of 12 and 15 and about 50% of them get married before they complete the 16th years.
#5. Religious attitudes towards family planning.
The religiously orthodox and conservative people are against the use of family planning measures. There are woman who disfavor family planning on the plea that they can not be against the wishes of God.
#6. Other causes.
Most of the people don’t know the sexuality and how to use condom. It is one of the cause of over population. Joint family and lack of responsibility of young couples in these families to bring up their children.
Impact of over population on health status.
Over population very badly effect on health status. Over Population lead various diseases and even effect on the world.
There are so many impact of over population on health status. These are includes-
I) Communicable diseases.
Over Population may result as communicable diseases. Communicable diseases are spread one person to another. It is includes HIV/ AIDS , chicken pox etc. So communicable diseases effect on health status.
II) Spread of infectious agents.
Virus, bacteria, parasites are spread through the people. Over Population may spread of viral, bacterial fungal diseases and it includes common cold, influenza etc. So, therefore it effect on health status.
III) Sexually transmitted diseases ( STD).
Sexually transmitted diseases may increases because of over population. STD are includes HIV, AIDS. So it is very badly effect on health status.
IV) Global warming.
Over Population may lead to increased global warming & temperature. To making house people are continuously cutting the forests area that’s why global temperature is increasing. And then carbon dioxide is increasing in the world. It can lead diseases also like skin disease, difficulty in respiration.
V) Smoking and alcoholism.
The rate of smoking and alcoholism is increasing because of over population. Over intake of smoking and alcohol may result as lung cancer, liver damage and even death. So, it is one of cause of make unhealthy.
Over Population direct effect in the environment. Result of over people may lead to air pollution, sound pollution, environment pollution. So, environment is important because good health is mainly depend on the surrounding area.