Innate Immunity (Medical Science).

Introduction and definition.

Immunity is refers to the resistance. Immunity is defense against infectious diseases and it is the protective power of the giving resistance of diseases, which is cause by the microorganisms and their products.

The word immunity originates from the Latin word immunity.

In the introduction when micro-organisms contact with people then they are live and infect. Protection against infectious diseases is one of the immune system.

The classification of the immunity is two categories.

1. Innate immunity.

2. Acquired immunity.

1. Innate immunity:-

The body’s first line of defense against invasion by micro-organisms is the innate immunity otherwise known as natural immune system. Innate immunity is defense against pathogens, responding a critical system to prevent infection and maintain homeostasis. The innate immunity is specific and nonspecific.

The mechanism of species immunity are not nearly understood due to physiological and biochemical differences between the tissues of the different host species.

The example of innate immunity are mice, chickenpox, plasmodium falciparum malaria etc.

2. Acquired immunity:-

The acquired immunity is refers to the resistance that acquires during lifetime. This is two types which are follows-

A. Active immunity.

After contact with foreign antigens the active immunity is induced. The active immunity is almost same as the adaptive immunity. Active immunity is synthesis of antibodies and production of immunologically active cells.

Active immunity is divides into two sub-types

I. Natural active immunity.

II. Artificial active immunity.

I. Natural active immunity.

Natural active immunity results from a clinical infection by the micro-organisms. The natural active immunity is production in antibodies and representative lymphocytes which is destroy the antigens. The active immunity is life long which is follow the pathogens duration. Many diseases like chickenpox or measles.

II. Artificial active immunity.

Artificial active immunity is refers to the artificially made and its resistance against pathogens. It is the resistance induce by vaccines. Vaccines are uses for immunization.

Vaccines are made with either:

  1. Live, attenuated microorganisms
  2. Killed microorganisms
  3. Microbial extract
  4. Vaccines conjugates
  5. Inactivated toxoids

Example of vaccines

  • Live (BCG vaccine for TB)
  • Killed (Cholera vaccine)
  • Subunit (Typhoid Vi-antigen)
  • Bacterial products

B. Passive immunity

Passive immunity is transfer to a recipient in a readymade from is known as passive immunity. In that system the recipient have immune system play’s no active role. It is protected immediately after immunization. There is no secondary type in passive immunity.

Passive immunity is divided into two types.

I. Natural passive immunity.

II. Artificial passive immunity.

I. Natural passive immunity.

It is the process giving resistance passively transfer from mother to baby through the placenta. Breast milk is passes immunoglobulins to the new born baby. IgA antibodies are more found in the human colostrum. IgA antibodies are resistance to intestinal digestion, gives protection to the neonate up to three months of age. The human fetus is synthesis of antibodies IgM. The natural passive immunity is give protection against diseases to the neonate.

Passive immunity is improve through the active immunization when the mother during pregnancy. Pregnant women antibodies pass across the placenta to her fetus.

II. Artificial passive immunity.

Artificial passive immunity is give resistance short time. It is the resistance passively transferred to a recipient by administration of antibodies.

Note.

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