The word population means unexpected growth of people. The growth of population is very rapid. And increasing of people in the per kilometer of area.
The increasing of people is a big problem some country even India also. The problem of over population has almost become world phenomenon today.
Causes of over population.
There are so many causes of over population as follows –
- #1. Widening gap between birth and death rate.
In the year 1951-1961 the average annual birth rate was 42/1000 population in India. But it is comes down 28.7 persons per thousand in the year of 1993. The average death rate was 27/1000 population in the year 1951-1961 and it is decrease 9.3 in the year 1993. The population birth rate more than death rate. So the widening gap has increase our population rapidly.
- #2. Low age at marriage.
It is one of the effective cause of the growth population. In India were perform 72% of marriages in low age according to the year 1931 of census. So, the population is continuously increasing. In the year 1901 to 1991 the female low age at marriage rate 13.1 to 18.4 and male low marriage rate 20.0 to 22.9.
- #3. Illiteracy.
Illiteracy is a major problem of increase population. Family planning has a link with education. And uneducated people are performed at low age marriage. The education can make a personal liberal, broad minded, open to new ideas and rational. In India the male and female literacy percentage is 63.86 and 39.42 in the year 1992.
- #4. Environmental factor.
The physical environment exerts an effect through the postulated of climate on or reproductive span of woman.
According to the findings of “Age of consent committee” above 80% of the Indian girls get their first menstruation between the age of 12 and 15 and about 50% of them get married before they complete the 16th years.
- #5. Religious attitudes towards family planning.
The religiously orthodox and conservative people are against the use of family planning measures. There are woman who disfavor family planning on the plea that they can not be against the wishes of God.
- #6. Other causes.
Most of the people don’t know the sexuality and how to use condom. It is one of the cause of over population. Joint family and lack of responsibility of young couples in these families to bring up their children.
Social consequences of over population.
The over population is direct effect on social or community. The social consequences of over population as follows-
- 1. Pressure on land.
Rapid growth of population increases the pressure on land. India has 16% of world population. Land is not increasing but population is continuously increasing. As a result the density of population is increasing in per square kilometer. So, over population effect on social or social land.
- 2. Unemployment.
Due to the over population unemployment is increases. It is estimated that about 3.3 million unemployment are added every year.
- 3. Housing problem.
House is basic needs of every individual. No one can survive without house. Housing problem is increases because of over population.
- 4. Poverty.
The Poverty is a social very effective condition. Poverty is increases due to the over population. So, the poverty is a big problem.
- 5. Health problems.
Health problems are rapidly increasing because of over population. Community peoples are facing health problems like acute and chronic diseases and communicable diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, AIDS etc.
- 6. Food problem.
Rapidly growth of population is increases food problem like quantitative and qualitative. Every individual needs 2100 to 2250 calories per day. The physical and mental health gets disturb when the nutritional food is not taking.
- 7. High illiteracy.
Illiteracy rate is increases because of over growth of population. According to the 1991 census, the overall literacy percentage in India is 52.11.
So therefore above the all factors are effect on social or society.