Hyperkalemia and Hypercalcemia.
The increasing of potassium (K) level in the blood. It is a medical condition and it is a electrolyte imbalance.
Causes of hyperkalemia.
It include causes are as follows-
- Over use of potassium based salt substituents.
- Excessive intake of oral or IV potassium supplements.
- Decreased renal exertion of potassium.
- Acute kidney failure.
- Chronic kidney failure
Clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia.
- Irregular heartbeat.
- Decreased blood pressure.
- Muscle weakness.
- Nausea and vomiting.
These are clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia.
Diagnostic evaluation of hyperkalemia.
Serum K (potassium)- mEq/L (Milliequivalents per Liter)
Management of hyperkalemia.
- Administer IV 85% or 50% of glucose.
- Sodium bicarbonate.
The hypercalcemia means increasing level of calcium in the blood. It is usually more than the 11 mg/dl.
Causes of hypercalcemia.
- Excessive intake of calcium.
- Chronic kidney failure.
Clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia.
- Increased heart rate and blood pressure.
- Skeletal muscle weakness.
Diagnostic evaluation of hypercalcemia.
- History collection and physical evaluation.
- Serum calcium <11 mg/dl.
- Urine examination.
Management of hypercalcemia.
Hydration with normal saline it is necessary in every patient to correct the ECG (Electric Cardio Graph) deficit due to nausea and vomiting.
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