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What is Social Process in Sociology?

Define social process.

Social process refers to the transfer information one to another. It is the social group, interact and establish social relationship. There are various forms of social interaction such as cooperation, competition, conflict, accommodation and assimilation. These forms of social interaction are also designated as social processes.

Definition of social process.

According to Ginsberg, “social process means the various modes of interaction between individual or group”.

According to Maclver, It is defines as ” the manner in which the relations of the members of a group once brought together acquire a certain distinctive character”.

According to AW Green, ” the social processes are merely the characteristics ways in interaction occurs”.

It is very important of group life. The important forms of social processes are as follows-

  • Cooperation
  • Competitions
  • Conflict
  • Accommodation
  • Assimilation
  • Isolation

Mention any two differences between cooperation and competition.

Cooperation  Competition  
  • Cooperation may lead relationship.
  • Competition may lead conflict.
  • Cooperation brings people satisfaction.
  • But competition may cause satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction, anxiety, indefinite.
  • Cooperation means help in the individual.
  • Complete is a source of motivation for individual.


Define assimilation.

Assimilation is the processes of identify and knowing about the interests of individual or group of people. It is an unconscious process. It is a slow or gradual process which is based on the principle of give and take.

Definition of assimilation.

According to Ogburn & Nimkoff, it is the process way by individual or group once dissimilar become similar and identify their interests.

It is a process where by attitudes of many persons are united and thus develop into united group.

What is acculturation?

Acculturation is a process of social adjustment to a new culture. It is adopt to a situation, social culture, roles and regulations of the social. It is a process of where individual living together with their interact and adjust to other individuals.

It is the process of cultural modification of an individual, group by adapting to borrowing traits from another culture.

Mention the types of conflict.

A conflict is a struggle and opinion or principles. It is found in the society. It may be personal, racial, class, caste, political and international. Conflict may also be emotional, intellectual and theoretical.

Types of conflict.

George Simmel has identified four types of conflict such as,

  • War:- An open group conflict.
  • Feud:- These are intergroup conflict. It may arise because of injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another.
  • Litigation:- A judicial from of conflict in order to assert once own right or claims.
  • Conflict of impersonal ideas.

Other types of conflict.

Gillin and Gillin mentioned five types of conflicts such as-

  • Personal conflict
  • Racial conflict
  • Class conflict
  • Political conflict
  • Interpersonal conflict.

Mention two negative effects of social isolation.

Social isolation

Social isolation refers to the state of complete contactless between an individual or society. It is the lack of relationship.

Isolation means to separate anything. In this social isolation is social community lack of contact and relationship. It is one type of loneliness from family or society.

Negative effects of social isolation.

  1. It is break the social relationship.
  2. Social isolation diverts the mind from the society or institution.
  3. Isolation can increase depression, anxiety.
  4. It also rises the risk of dementia in older adults.

Mention two health effects of social isolation.

Various health effects of social isolation as follows –

  1. It can raises depression and anxiety.
  2. It also rises the risk of dementia in older adults.
  3. Social isolation can even death.

Mention two ways of resolving conflict.

There are so many methods for resolving problem.

Social Process

List the types of cooperation.

A. Maclver and page have mentioned two types of cooperation.

  • Direct cooperation
  • Indirect cooperation

Direct cooperation:-

It is a helping process by direct to direct.

The goal and interest is the same for all participants.

Cooperation is a form of social interaction where two or more persons work together to gain a common end

Indirect cooperation:-

Indirect cooperation in different activities to achieve a common goal.

For example, the construction of a house requires the cooperation of carpenters.

B. AW Green given has three types of cooperation.

  • Primary cooperation
  • Secondary cooperation
  • Tertiary cooperation.

Define accommodation.

Accommodation is a form of social process. It is refers to the adjustment of social entertainment and situations called accommodation.

It is a way of bringing social arrangement, which helps people to work together.

Definition of accommodation.

According to JM Baldvin, ” accommodation denotes acquired changes in the behavior of individuals which help them to adjust to their environment”.

According to Maclver, It is the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment.

According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, It is a term used by sociologists to describe the adjustment to hostile with his environment.

According to Park and Burgess, “accommodation is a natural resolution of conflict”.

Mention the forms of accommodation.

There are seven forms or methods of accommodation.

  1. Yielding to coercion.
  2. Compromise.
  3. Role of third party.
  4. Toleration.
  5. Conservation.
  6. Sublimation.
  7. Rationalization.

List factors hindering the assimilation.

There are five factors of hindering assimilation,

  1. Isolation
  2. Racial difference
  3. Cultural differences
  4. Prejudies
  5. Dominants and subordination.

List the factors fav0uring the assimilation.

There are six factors of favoring assimilation.

  1. Toleration
  2. Intimate social relationship
  3. Inter caste marriages
  4. Cultural similarity
  5. Education
  6. Equal social and economic opportunities.

List two any advantages of competition.

It improve knowledge:- Competition improve our knowledge and understanding. Competition is inauguration between two or more persons. A lot of knowledge can gain from the competition.

For example- Quizzes competition, game competition.

It improve self confidence:- When any one of win a competition definitely his/her confidence will be increase.

Define crowd.

The crowd refers to the group of people or gathering of people in one place called as crowd. The society is a crowd where individual living together with common behavior and interest. It is a combination of more people considered as a meeting.

For example, political meeting and industrial meeting.

Definition of crowd.

According to Kimbal Young, crowd is defined as “a gathering of considerable no of persons around a centre or a point of common activities”.

According to Schaefer, It is one temporary group of people in close proximity who share a common focus of interest.

Differentiate between public and audience.

Public:- The public means a group of group of people who discuss in a particular topic.

Audience:- Audience is a crowd formed for a specific period of time based on some specific cause.

Public  Audience  
  • A public does not have any organization. 
  • The audience has organization. 
  • A public has definite issues like, political, local religious.  
  • Audience has not any kind of issues. 
  • The public has more power. 
  • Numerical strength doesn’t have so much influence. 
  • Time and place not determined. 
  • Time and place are determined. 
  • Behavior is not certain. 
  • Behavior takes place by definite modes. 

Differentiate between clan and tribe.

Tribe  Clan  
  • Tribe lives on a definite geographical area. 
  • Clan has no definite territory. 
  • Tribe has a common language. 
  • Clan has no common language. 
  • Tribe is an endogenous group. 
  • Clan is an exogenous group. 
  • Tribe has member of clans. 
  • Clan is a part of tribe. 

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