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What are the Clinical Manifestations of hyperkalemia?

Hyperkalemia and Hypercalcemia.


The increasing of potassium (K) level in the blood. It is a medical condition and it is a electrolyte imbalance.

Causes of hyperkalemia.

It include causes are as follows-

  1. Over use of potassium based salt substituents.
  2. Excessive intake of oral or IV potassium supplements.
  3. Decreased renal exertion of potassium.
  4. Acute kidney failure.
  5. Chronic kidney failure
  6. Burns.

Clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia.

  • Irregular heartbeat.
  • Decreased blood pressure.
  • Palpitation.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

These are clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia.

Diagnostic evaluation of hyperkalemia.

Serum K (potassium)- mEq/L (Milliequivalents per Liter)

Management of hyperkalemia.

  • Administer IV 85% or 50% of glucose.
  • Sodium bicarbonate.


The hypercalcemia means increasing level of calcium in the blood. It is usually more than the 11 mg/dl.

Causes of hypercalcemia.

  1. Dehydration.
  2. Immobility.
  3. Excessive intake of calcium.
  4. Chronic kidney failure.

Clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia.

  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Skeletal muscle weakness.
  • Lethargy.
  • Irritability.
  • Depression.

Diagnostic evaluation of hypercalcemia.

  • History collection and physical evaluation.
  • Serum calcium <11 mg/dl.
  • Urine examination.

Management of hypercalcemia.

Hydration with normal saline it is necessary in every patient to correct the ECG (Electric Cardio Graph) deficit due to nausea and vomiting.


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