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What is the Important Difference between primary and secondary groups?

Difference between primary and secondary groups. 

Primary group. 

The concept of primary group is introduced by CH Cooley in his book “Social Organization” in 1909. 

The primary groups are the main point or center of the social organization. This is found in the societies. 

The primary groups are social organization which is defines the social processes, social institutions, social behaviors and social interaction in the group of community. 

Definition of primary group. 

According to CH Cooley, “primary group is characterized by the intimate face to face relationship and it involves sympathy, mutual help and identification”. 

Secondary group. 

Secondary groups are industrial society. It is also modern groups. Secondary groups are unavoidable in modern society. 

Some sociologists are called them the great associations. 



According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “secondary groups are those which primary experience, lacking in intimacy”. 

Difference between primary and secondary groups. 

Primary group 

Secondary group 

  • Primary groups are small in size. 
  • Secondary groups are large in size. 
  • Limited to a small area. 
  • Spread in large area. 
  • These are durable groups. 
  • These are temporary groups. 
  • Close and face to face relationship. 
  • Distance relationship. 
  • Spontaneous and natural relation. 
  • Artificial relationship 
  • Relationship is not for any particular purpose. 
  • Relationship is not achieve definite purpose. 
  • Personal relationship. 
  • Impersonal and nominal relationship 
  • The whole personality of the individual is involved in the relationship. 
  • Only oriented aspect of the personality involved in the relationship. 
  • It plays a significant role in the process of socialization. 
  • Not very important in the socialization of an individuals. 
  • Primary groups are as old as human society itself. 
  • Relatively new concern. 
  • Made of mostly blood relatives. 
  • Block relatives are not involved. 
  • Primary groups are universal. 
  • Secondary groups are not universal. 
  • Deep we feeling among the members. 
  • No we feeling 
  • The control is internal. 
  • The control in external. 
  • Intrinsic valuation of persons and relationships. 
  • Extrinsic valuation of the persons and relationship. 
  • Complete knowledge about the other members of the group. 
  • Limited partial knowledge about other members of the group 

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